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¿Cómo es la participación local en latinoamérica?

participacion localparticipacion local

La participación local en latinoamérica

Se ha podido observar una tendencia centralizadora en los paises latinoamericanos, donde es evidente que la visión de la sociedad es unificada, no teniendo en cuenta las características propias de cada lugar.

Esto significa "masificar", donde las prioridades se dan por igual, especialmente en cuanto a los servicios sociales, creando situaciones que pueden considerarse injustas y criticables, no permitiendo un desarrollo concreto.

El Estado, principal gestor de esta acción unificadora, genera la escasa participación de los grupos regionales o locales, verdaderos artífices de una política concreta en su zona de ingerencia, lo cual puede llevar a  a pensar que no se permite una democracia participativa como la que se pretende destacar en el presente estudio.

El desarrollo local solamente se puede lograr a través de procesos de planificación y toma de decisiones por células autónomas, que permitan la efectiva participación política y social, como así incentivar un verdadero vínculo entre la sociedad civil y el Estado.

Estimular la acción local, da lugar a que las tomas de decisiones o la planificación sobre determinadas situaciones por parte de los involucrados directos tenga un efecto inmediato y concreto, lo que no sucede cuando la administración central pretende hacer lo mismo, ya que está muchas veces alejada de la realidad, y por más medidas que pretenda llevar a a cabo, no se profundizará, como cuando la acción es llevada a cabo por los propios interesados, organizados en grupos o entes regionales.

Esto se lleva a cabo a través de un proceso de descentralización, que significa distribuir el poder entre diferentes instituciones territoriales y por lo tanto un auténtico ejercicio de la participación, la cual tiene éxito cuando se genera identidad propia y cierta independencia.

De todos modos, no se puede hablar de la participación local, sin tener en cuenta el contexto global en que se encuentra inserta una determinada comunidad, lo cual indica que existe una interrelación entre ambos parámetros, donde se influyen mutuamente y permite establecer también características que no pueden ser ignoradas.

Lo global se identifica con lo central, que muchas veces significa concentración de poder y riquezas, en tanto lo local es la periferia, se encuentra más desvalorizada.

Por ello es necesario este cambio que se destaca aquí, fortalecer los sectores locales, aunque ello provoque temor al crecimiento de las diferencias de expresión organizada de los particularismos.

Ya se dijo anteriormente que los sistemas monopolizantes centrales provocan un efecto paralizador, en tanto la participación comunitaria es propia del dinamismo de la democracia y se relaciona con lo local y la descentralización.

En la actualidad hay una falta de iniciativa local, que ha sido estimulada por esa costumbre de esperar siempre lo que el centro proporciona para calmar las necesidades más elementales.

Aún así, no debe confundirse que lo local se utilice como una máscara de intereses privados, especialmente dentro de la nueva corriente de mercado, donde se pretende achicar el Estado para lograr ese objetivo, y que en definitiva nada beneficia a lacomunidad en su conjunto.

El ciudadano común debe encontrar en las instituciones locales la posiblidad de actuar y de realizar propuestas. La ciudadanía local debe ser un instrumento de democracia regional, de participación y de compromiso de la población con los destinos de su localidad.

Dice José Arocena: "lo que determina que un conjunto humano que habita un territorio limitado constrituya una sociedad local, es el reconocimiento explícito de sus miembros a pertenecer a ese conjunto, identificándose con su historia y comprometiéndose con su desarrollo". Este concepto puede orientar a comprender mejor la importancia de la participación local, como así lo enriquecedor que puede resultar la creación de nuevas formas institucionales dentro de ese ámbito, que si bien pueden ser incentivadas por el "centro", mucho mejor si resultan de iniciativas propias.



Referencias:

Bibliografía para consultar

"Discutiendo la dimensión local". AROCENA, José. En: Revista uruguaya de Ciencias Sociales. 2º serie. Cuadernos n.45 y 46, año 13, Uruguay, CLAEH, 1998.

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