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Cómo funciona un LED ?

Cómo funcionan los LEDsCómo funcionan los LEDs

Cómo funcionan los LEDs ?

Los LEDs (Light emitting diodes - Diodos emisores de luz), son pequeñas bombillas de luz, que a diferencia de las bombillas tradicionales, estas no tienen un filamento (resistencia) que se quemará, y por lo tanto, no calientan. 

Los LEDs se iluminan gracias al movimiento de los electrones en un material semiconductor. 

Su tiempo de vida es apróximadamente el mismo que un transistor estándar. Superando el tiempo de vida útil de una bombilla incandescente por miles de horas.

Uso:
Los LEDs se utilizan en todo tipo de dispositivo electrónico, como electrodomésticos, computadoras, relojes digitales, televisores de alta definición LCD, también son usados para la transmisión de información desde los mandos a distancia.

Funcionamiento: 
Un led comienza a funciona cuando se hace pasar una corriente eléctrica a través del diodo, entonces, las cargas positivas y negativas, se mueven en sentido contrario, de tal modo, que cuando un electrón, se acerca a una laguna(de carga positiva), se combina con ella, pero con la particularidad de que la laguna dispone de menor energía que el electrón y para poder combinarse, este último debe perder energía. entonces la energia perdida por los electrones, se libera en forma de fotones. Este efecto es llamado electroluminiscencia

El color de la luz es determinado por la banda de energía del semiconductor.

Ventajas:
Comparando con fuentes de luz incandescente y fluorescentelos, los leds presentan muchas ventajas:

- Bajo consumo de energía.
- Mayor tiempo de vida (durabilidad: 100.000 horas).
- Tamaño reducido.
- Resistencia a las vibraciones.
- Reducida emisión de calor.
- No general campos magnéticos.
- Reducen ruidos en las líneas eléctricas.
- Tiempo de encendido rápido (un cuarto de segundo).

Referencias:

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Carlos Puentes: Los leds son muy utilizados para iluminar casas, en lugar de utilizar focos, se usan cientos de Leds sincronizados que permiten tener mejor eficacia que las lamparas de luz tradicionales.

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