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Por qué flotan los barcos? - principio de Arquímedes

barco carguero - principio de flotabilidad barco carguero - principio de flotabilidad

Por qué no se hunden los barcos?

Los barcos se mantienen en flote porque su peso total, es menor al peso del agua que desplazan. 

Si un barco pesara más que la cantidad de liquídido que mueve, entonces se hundiría. 

Para que un objeto flote se deben cumplir las siguientes condiciones: 

1) La densidad:
Para que un objeto flote, tiene que ser menos denso que la materia donde flota. Si no se hunde.

2) La forma física del objeto: La cantidad de líquido desplazado por el objeto depende de la forma del objeto. 

Por ejemplo, si fabricamos un barco de papel metátilo, este flotará porque su forma física le permite desplazar una cantidad de líquido superior a la de su peso. 

En cambio, si tomamos el mismo barco de papel metalizado, y lo apretamos los suficiente para que se haga una bolita de papel solida, entonces, cuando lo introducimos en el agua, se hunde, porque su nueva forma física, le permite mover un volumen de agua menor a la de su peso.

Arquímedes de Siracusa

El principio de Arquímedes

El principo físico de Arquímedes afirma que: Todo objeto sumergido o parcialmente sumergido en un fluido en reposo, experimenta un empuje vertical y hacia arriba igual al peso del fluido desalojado.
Esta fuerza recibida se llama empuje hidroestático. 

peso aparente

El empuje hidroestático y el peso aparente

La fuerza de empuje hidroestática que ejerce el líquido sobre un objeto sumergido o semisumergido, se recibe en forma vertical y ascendente. 

Cuando el objeto esta sumergido totalmente, la intensidad el mismo resulta ser también la diferencia entre el peso que tiene el cuerpo suspendido en el aire y el "peso" que tiene el mismo cuando se lo introduce en un líquido.

A éste se lo conoce como peso "aparente" del objeto, ya que su peso en el líquido disminuye "aparentemente". Si bien la fuerza ejercida por la Tierra sigue constante, el objeto, a su vez, esta recibiendo una fuerza hacia arriba que disminuye la resultante vertical.


Referencias:

- El principio de Arquímides - Master D - España

- Blog de hidráulica en la rehabilitación del cuerpo humano http://hidraulikinesis.blogspot.ca/
- Videos de Scientificprotocols

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